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As AJ said, there are general guidelines for how many calories you should take per hour, but from there trial and error is the way to go. I used to do all Clif shot blocks on the bike and GUs on the run (for variety) because I learned a long time ago I cannot run and chew at the same time. I had way too many GI problems after the bike in my first 3 half-ironman races so I started mixing in a protein bar on the bike instead I eat shot blocks straight out of the swim, then alternate 1/2 protein bar and shot blocks for the rest of the bike. It made a world of difference! I stopped getting an upset stomach and felt much better overall. I tested it out many times in my long workouts to figure out how much/how often would work for me. I’ve also noticed that as the years have gone by my stomach is much less sensitive to what I eat before long workouts and races. If you’re having GI sensitivity, it will get better over time and as you figure out works during your workouts/races.